Thursday, 19 March 2020

Maize Diseases

Maize Diseases and Management

Maize diseases and management
Maize Diseases
Maize/corn is one of the main crops of farmers after paddy and wheat. The maize is grown all over the world. There are some maize diseases which will affect the quality and quantity of the crop. This article will help you with maize disease symptoms. Other than this you will read about maize diseases and management.

Here is the maize disease list or we can say that major diseases of maize and their management.


1. Downy Mildew

Symptoms:

This disease mainly occurs on less than four weeks of maize. In this disease, the growth is stunted and the white stips on both surfaces of a leaf. In downy mildew disease, the leaf becomes a bushy appearance. Another one is brown stripe downy mildew will appear on leaves and the colour of leaves start becoming dull and leaves dry. This is starting from the top of leaves, in an advance stage the leaves necrotic with a purple and reddish colour and brunt like appearance. The main or favourable condition of downy mildew is 21-33 degree Celcius with relative humidity 90 percent and drizzling. It mostly found in younger plants of maize. In downy mildew, one more symptom occurs which is generally called crazy top. In this upper leaves rolled and twisting before malformation of the tassel. 


Management

  • You can use resistance variety of maize like Hybrid COH6, Ganga, DMR 1.
  • Seed treatment can be performed with Metalaxly 4g/kg to avoid disease.
  • A spray of Metalaxyl 1 Kg or Mancozeb 2g/l after 20 days of maize sowing.

2. Leaf Blight

Symptoms:

This is also a fungus disease majorly found in maize special in the young plant. In this disease, water-soaked spots will appear on leaves.  The disease starts from lower leaves then upper leaves then ear sheath at the mature crop.  Also small round or oval shape spot on leaves. After that, they turn to reddish-brown colour. The disease mainly occurs in the wet season where temperature range between 8-27 degree Celcius with free water on leaves. 

Management:

  • You can use resistance variety of maize like Parbhat, Sartaj, Decan 109, F7013 and COH 6.
  • A spray of Metalaxyl 1 Kg or Mancozeb 2g/l after 10 days of interval.

3. Stalk  Rot 

Symptoms:

In this disease the stem of maize or internodes become soft. It shows symptoms like wilt or water loss symptoms in maize. Ear of maize also rot and looks ear further develop and ear hang down of maize. This disease occurs during the rainy season and near the flowering stage.

Management:

  • Avoid waterlogging and poor drainage.
  • Grow a hybrid variety or variety like Ganga to avoid disease.

4. Charcoal Rot

Symptoms:

In charcoal the stalk of the infected plant become greyish and the crown region becomes dark in colour. The main looks by which we can identify this disease is the presence of black sclerotia in the pith of maize stalks.

Management:

  • Follow Crop Rotation
  • Avoid Nutrient Stress in Maize
  • Apply Potash in the affected area  80kg/ha
  • Also avoidance of water stress at flowering time.
  • Seed can be treated with carbendazim or thiram 3g/kg
  • Also, grow resistance variety like Ganga Safed, DHM105 and DHM 103

5. Rust 

Symptoms:

In this disease, a brown powder will appear on both sides of the leaf. Mostly occurs in cool temperature and high humidity which is 10-12 degree Celcius is favourable for it. 

Management:

  • Destroy the alternate plants' hosts which are infected.
  • Grow the hybrid variety or Deccan variety, Ganga 5, Hybrid Makka, and DHM 1
  • Also can be controlled by Spray Mancozeb at the rate at advanced 2.5 g/l and 1.25 kg/ha. or with Diathene M45 can be used.

These are the major diseases of maize which found in India and other countries. If you have any query on crop comment in the given comment section.
  
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