Tuesday, 7 April 2020

About Weed, Impact and management Methods

What is Weed?

Weed is plant or vegetation that grows in a field along with crop or weed we can say that an unwanted and undesirable plant in the crop which uses the land and water resources for their growth and development. Consumption of weeds can affects human health.
Weed Management
Summer Weed

The growth of weed is not desirable in the monoculture system. These undesired plants deplete the nutrients; water and space allotted for the intended crop, and finally cause a huge reduction in crop yield.

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Identification of Weed

Knowing the weeds that are competing with desirable crops is important to understand how to manage their populations in the field. It is said that identification is halfway to control. The first step in effective weed management is the accurate identification which in turn will help in a basic understanding of the weeds' life cycle. Correct identification of weed can be an important step in making sure that new weeds can be eradicated before they become established.

Effects of weeds on crop

Weeds cause hazards to human health as well as animal health. Like Cleome viscose produces an undesirable odour in the animal milk. 
Reduce crop quality as well as production and vary from crop to crop.
Weeds decrease seed purity with a barrier in pollination. 
Weeds increase the irrigation requirement.
Weed Attracts and provides shelter the different pests and diseases, pathogens and parasites in the field.
They reduce the cost of production by adding the cost of cleaning.
Decrease the nutrient value presents in soil by up taking for self-development.

Management of Weeds

There are different methods of weed management

1. Chemical Method 

This method is used to kill the weeds by the chemical. The chemical may be applied to soil or foliar application on weeds. The chemicals which are used to kill the weeds called Herbicides. The herbicides can apply pre and post-emergence to control the weeds.  There are different types of herbicides for different type’s weeds. Herbicides can control many perennial weeds which cannot be controlled easily by other methods. Some herbicides are applied directly but in some types of weeds, we have to careful and apply between the two rows by avoiding the crop. 
Some Herbicides Mostly used in different crops like Pendiamethlin, Metribuzin, Butachlor  Pertilaclor, Glyphosate, and 2-4-D.

2. Physical Method 

This method is mostly used by small farmers as well as organic farmers to kill the weeds. This method is done by a manual, animal or mechanical power is used to pull out and kill weeds in the crop field. Which physical technique is used for weeds depends on weed type and crop. Techniques used for the physical methods like inter cultivation, Mulching, Burning and flaming, Cutting, Digging, Hand Hoeing and Hand Weeding are used to reduce the population of weeds.

3. Cultural Method 

Several cultural practices like tillage, planting method, fertilizer application, irrigation technology, etc., are employed for creating favorable conditions for the crops which helps the crop to grow and use the soil nutrients. These types of practices can help to reduce the weeds. This method cannot control all weeds but helps in reducing weed annual population in the soil.

4. Biological Method 

This control method involves using living organisms, such as insects, nematodes, bacteria, or fungi, to reduce weed populations in the field. Like Fungi- Rhizoctinia blight for Hyacinth Weed, Leaf beetle (Octotoma scabripennis and Leaf Minning (Uroplata giraldi) for Lantana Camara weed, common carp fish help in aquatic weeds, and cowpea intercrop in sorghum will decrease the growth of weeds in sorghum.

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