Saturday, 4 April 2020

Maize Cultivation

A brief Article on Maize (Corn) 


Maize is also known as corn in global and the botanical name of maize is ‘Zea mays’. It is the third most grown crop in cereals after paddy and wheat.

Maize 

Maize Cultivation
Maize


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History of maize

The history of maize domesticated tracked by 8000-10000 years back. The maize and Indian corn are native from America. It was first cultivated in Mexico and now grown in more than 165 countries. If we talk about India, maize was introduced by Portuguese during the 17th century. The Minnesota Senate in the United States is called ‘Corn Capital of the World’ since 1973. It is erected for a 50-foot corn monument in the shape of an ear of corn. 

Uses of Maize

Mostly the maize is used for Industrial for manufacturing the sugar, starch, oil, and syrup and also bio ethanol. Maize widely used for consumption in Africa. Maize flour is used for baked products and corn bread. Maize is also used in many countries as feed livestock.



Maize Cultivation Area

Maize is the queen of cereals in global which grown in more than 165 countries cultivated more than 190 M Ha. America is the largest producer and exporter of maize around 377 million metrics tons yearly. In India top maize producer states of maize Karnataka, Bihar, Tamilnadu, Rajasthan are at the top. You can read statically value of maize producer by clicking on highlighted button and India rank by clicking here.

How do you grow maize? 

Every crop has their own characters and you must aware about, climate and soil, Maize Nutrient Requirement, Irrigation system, maize variety and Maize spacing before sowing a crop. Lets Read about them.
Maize Soil and Climate
Maize Soil and Climate

Maize Soil and Climate

The ideal soil for growing maize is well-drained red or black cotton soil, preferably a sandy loam. The soil quality you can improve by adding Organic matter such as compost can be added to soil to improve its overall quality, improve drainage, particularly for heavy clay soil in different areas.  Soil pH level for maize should be between ‘5.8 to 6.8’. The optimum soil temperature range for maize between ‘77° F and 91° F’ or 25 degree Celsius to 33 degree Celsius. 

Maize Planting Season

India 

  • Panting: June- July, September- October, and January- Feb 

United States:

  • Planting: April to June

China:

  • Planting: mid-March - June

European Union:

  • Planting: Mid-April - early June

Brazil:

  • Planting: Early August - November

  Argentina:

  • Planting: October – November


Maize Spacing and Seed Rate

Maize spacing and seed rate is different from region to region and country to country like Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya Uganda, America, India, Africa, United Kingdom, Brazil, and South Africa. Also depends on purpose of sowing and planting like feed to livestock, corn starch, and human consumption. Generally there is standard recommended for maize is 75cm between rows and 25cm for plants. For seed purpose 10 kg Foundation, certified seed for one hectare required. For Hybrid 18-22 kg per ha and fodder 40-50 kg/ha is needed.



Maize Variety

Maize variety is very import before planting and sowing to get the good yield. There is a list of different maize variety with their Name, character, seed rate, yield, and the company registered and suitable area. Also, Hybrid seed and popcorn variety. For Indian farmers according to sates- Maize Variety in Rajasthan, Odisha, Telangana, Punjab and Karnataka. Includes, Private seed agency Bayer, Monsanto, Pioneer etc.

Maize Nutrient Requirement

Maize Nutrient Management
Maize Nutrient Management

Maize is responsive to applied nutrient either through organic or inorganic source. Nitrogen 120-150 kg/ha in three split, Phosphorus P2O5 40-60 kg/ha, Potash 30-40 kg/ha. All three should be applied inorganic combination with organic manure such as FYM 8-10 t/ha, 20 days before sowing. Green manure or oil cakes 6-7 t/ha also be recommended.

Water/Irrigation management in Maize

Water Requirement depends upon sowing/growing season. Irrigation should be applied on need of crops depends upon rain, water holding capacity of the soil. Critical stages of irrigation are seed emergence, knee height, flowering and grain filling stage. Maize is susceptible in both heavy rain and moisture stress just water does not stand long time in field.

Weed Management

Weed is a serious problem in maize you can control them by manual weeding, pre and post emergence. In Pre you can use Pendimethalin (stomp) 1-1.5 kg/ha, atrazine 1-1.25kg/ha and for post 2-4 D or Benval is recommended.

Plant Protection

Most of the hybrid is resistance or tolerant to diseases, however in case of symptoms timely step is necessary for control the diseases and pest.

Maize Diseases

Most commonly diseases in maize are Downy Mildew, leaf blight, rot and rust occur in maize. For Management of Diseases in Maize you can read this. 

Maize Pests

Mostly common Pests of maize are Stem borer, corn worms, Weevils, Aphids, White fly and the most import fall army worm. For Management of Pests in maize you can read this.


Maize Harvest and Yield 

The grain crop of maize is harvested when the cob-sheath turn brownish. The gain become harder and does not contain more than 20 percent moisture. The average yield of maize per hectare is 5-6 tons where hybrid 9-11 tons per hectare. If we calculate by maize yield per acre 15-20 quintal and hybrid yield 40 quintal per acre of an average duration 110 days maize. For a particular corn plant can produce seven corns.




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