Sunday 12 April 2020

A review about Biopesticides or Biochemicals


What are Biopesticides?

No Chemicals

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Biopesticide refers to a pesticide that originates from natural living organisms, animals, including microorganisms, and plants. additionally, to preventing yield losses through pest and disease control, biopesticides improve environmental and human health by contributing to the reduction of chemical pesticides also by improving the standard of produce.

There are three classes of bio pesticides 

1. Microbial pesticides: 

These biopesticides are consist of or produced by microorganisms, including bacteria, nematodes, entomopathogenic viruses, and fungi. Each sort of microbial pesticide targets a selected species or small group of species. it's common that microbial pesticides control an outsized sort of pests. the best strength of this is often nontoxic and nonpathogenic to humans and animals.

2. Biochemical/herbal pesticides: 

These are substances present within the environment that control pests by the non-toxic mechanisms. this might include plant extracts that lure and trap insects or insect pheromones that interfere with mating. it's going to include botanical extractions that are active against disease pathogens and other pests.

3. PIPs (Plant-Incorporated Protectants):

 These pesticides are originated from plants as a result of another genetically incorporated material has been added to plants.

The most widely used microbial pesticide are sorts of bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt. Each bacterium is used for different targeting insects and larvae. Naturally, derived materials like copper, bicarbonate of soda, vegetable oil, clove oil, rosemary oil, and vegetable oil also are considered biopesticides.

 Name of the Biopesticides Registered in India 

1. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis 
2. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki 
3. Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae
 4. Bacillus sphaericus 
5. Trichoderma viride 
6. Trichoderma harzianum 
7. Pseudomonas fluoresens 
8. Beauveria bassiana 
9. NPV of Helicoverpa armigera 
10. NPV of Spodoptera litura 
11. Neem based pesticides 
12. Cymbopogan

Some plants used as biopesticides

Neem is used for sucking and chewing insects.
Limonene and Linalool are the most effective for  Fleas, aphids, and mites, also kill fire ants, several types of flies, paper wasps and house crickets.
Rotenone is best for Leaf-feeding insects, such as aphids, certain beetles (asparagus beetle, bean leaf beetle, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetle, flea beetle, strawberry leaf beetle, and others) and caterpillars, as well as fleas and lice on animals.
Ryania is good for Caterpillars (European corn borer, corn earworm, and others) and thrips.
Sabadilla is for Squash bugs, harlequin bugs, thrips, caterpillars, leafhoppers, and stink bugs

Benefits of biochemical

Used for soil born and fungal pathogens.
It is best for control pathogens then chemicals.
It is biodegradable.
It is less expensive.
Biochemicals or biopesticides results good for the long term in agriculture crops and non-toxic to humans and animals.

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