Wednesday 11 March 2020

Crop System

Cropping System, Types, and climate condition of crops in India

Cropping System
Cropping System

Kharif Crops

Paddy, Millet, Maize, Cotton, Groundnut, Sweet potato, Black gram, Green gram, Cowpea, Sorghum, Sesame, Guar, Jute, Sunai, Peogenpea, Dhancha, Sugarcane, Soybean, Okra

Rabi Crops

Wheat, Barley, Gram, Mustard, Peas, Barsim, Rijeka, Lentil, Potato, Tobacco, Lahi, Oats

Zaid Crops

Pumpkin, Muskmelon, Watermelon, Bottle gourd, Sponge gourd, Green gram, Cucumber, Chilly, Tomato, Sunflower

2. Life cycle-based

Annuals Crops

Paddy, Wheat, Gram, Dhancha, Bajra, Moong, Cotton, Peanut, Mustard, Potato, Sweet potato, Pumpkin, Gourd, Soyabean

Biennials Crops

Chukkandar, onion

Perennials crops

Napier Grass, Rijeka, Fruit Crops

3. Economic based

Cereal crops

Paddy, wheat, barley, gram, maize, jowar, millet,

Spices crop

Ginger, mint, onion, garlic, chili, coriander, celery, cumin, fennel, turmeric, pepper, cardamom, and bay leaf

Fiber crop

Jute, cotton, linseed, jute, dhencha

Fodders crop

Barsim, Lucerne (Rijka), Napier Grass, Cowpea, Jewel

Fruits crop

Mango, Guava, Lemon, Litchi, Banana, Papaya, Apple, Pear

Medicinals crops

Mint, Mentha, Ginger, Turmeric, and Basil

Oilseeds crops

Mustard, castor, sesame, peanuts, sunflower, linseed, safflower, rapeseed, soybean and rye


Gram, Urd, Moong, Peas, Lentils, Tur, Peanuts, Soybeans

Roots & Tubers crops

Potato, sweet potato, ginger, carrot, radish, Arabic, yam, tapioca, turnip

Stimulants Crop

Tobacco, poppy, tea, coffee, datura, cannabis

Sugar Crop

Sugar beet, Sugarcane

Special use based crops

Catch Crops

Urd, Moong, China, Lahi, Savva, Potato

Cash Crops

Sugarcane, Potato, Tobacco, Cotton, Chilli, Tea, Coffee,

Soil Crops

Peanuts, Moong, Urd, Sweet potato, Barsim, Lucerne (Rijeka)

Green Manure

Moong, Sanai, Barsim, Dhaichan, Moth, Masoor, Guar, Maize, Cowpea, Millets

Food Grains and Agro-Climatic Condition 

Types of Cropping System?

Mainly three types of cropping system followed in India:

1. Mono-Cropping/ Monoculture-In this cropping system, only one crop is grown on farmland during the year. 

2. Multiple-Cropping: In this cropping system,  grow two or more crops in a year calendar with intensive input management practices. Example intercropping and mixed cropping. 

3. Inter-cropping: In this cropping system, grow two or more crops in one calendar year.

Agri Climatic Condition for different Crops

Agri Climatic Condition for different Crops
Agri Climate 


Favorable Temperature: 22 -32 degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 1500-3000 mm

Best in Soil: Deep clayey and loamy soil


Favorable Temperature: 10 -15   (Sowing time) and 21-26  degree Celsius at (Ripening & Harvesting)

Average Rainfall: 750-1000 mm

Soil: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy


Favorable Temperature: 27-32  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 500-1000 mm

Soil: It can be grown in an inferior alluvial or loamy soil


Favorable Temperature: 20-25  degree Celsius (Mild cool snd Dry Climate)

Average Rainfall: 400-450 mm

Soil: Loamy Soil

Sugar Cane

Favorable Temperature: 21-27  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 750-1500 mm

Soil: Deep rich loamy soil


Favorable Temperature: 21-30  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 500-1000 mm

Best in Soil: Black soil of Deccan and also in alluvial soils, red and laterite soil.


Favorable Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 500-750 mm

Best in Soil: Well-drained in light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils.


Favorable Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 1500-3000 mm

Best in Soil: Well-drained, deep friable loamy soil.


Favorable Temperature: 15-28  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 1500-2500 mm

Best in  Soil: Well-drained deep and loamy soil.


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