Wednesday, 11 March 2020

Crop System

Cropping System, Types, and climate condition of crops in India

Cropping System
Cropping System

Kharif Crops


Paddy, Millet, Maize, Cotton, Groundnut, Sweet potato, Black gram, Green gram, Cowpea, Sorghum, Sesame, Guar, Jute, Sunai, Peogenpea, Dhancha, Sugarcane, Soybean, Okra

Rabi Crops


Wheat, Barley, Gram, Mustard, Peas, Barsim, Rijeka, Lentil, Potato, Tobacco, Lahi, Oats

Zaid Crops



Pumpkin, Muskmelon, Watermelon, Bottle gourd, Sponge gourd, Green gram, Cucumber, Chilly, Tomato, Sunflower

2. Life cycle-based


Annuals Crops


Paddy, Wheat, Gram, Dhancha, Bajra, Moong, Cotton, Peanut, Mustard, Potato, Sweet potato, Pumpkin, Gourd, Soyabean

Biennials Crops


Chukkandar, onion

Perennials crops


Napier Grass, Rijeka, Fruit Crops

3. Economic based


Cereal crops


Paddy, wheat, barley, gram, maize, jowar, millet,

Spices crop


Ginger, mint, onion, garlic, chili, coriander, celery, cumin, fennel, turmeric, pepper, cardamom, and bay leaf

Fiber crop


Jute, cotton, linseed, jute, dhencha

Fodders crop


Barsim, Lucerne (Rijka), Napier Grass, Cowpea, Jewel

Fruits crop


Mango, Guava, Lemon, Litchi, Banana, Papaya, Apple, Pear


Medicinals crops


Mint, Mentha, Ginger, Turmeric, and Basil

Oilseeds crops


Mustard, castor, sesame, peanuts, sunflower, linseed, safflower, rapeseed, soybean and rye

Pulses


Gram, Urd, Moong, Peas, Lentils, Tur, Peanuts, Soybeans

Roots & Tubers crops


Potato, sweet potato, ginger, carrot, radish, Arabic, yam, tapioca, turnip

Stimulants Crop


Tobacco, poppy, tea, coffee, datura, cannabis

Sugar Crop


Sugar beet, Sugarcane

Special use based crops


Catch Crops


Urd, Moong, China, Lahi, Savva, Potato

Cash Crops


Sugarcane, Potato, Tobacco, Cotton, Chilli, Tea, Coffee,

Soil Crops


Peanuts, Moong, Urd, Sweet potato, Barsim, Lucerne (Rijeka)

Green Manure


Moong, Sanai, Barsim, Dhaichan, Moth, Masoor, Guar, Maize, Cowpea, Millets

Food Grains and Agro-Climatic Condition 


Types of Cropping System?


Mainly three types of cropping system followed in India:


1. Mono-Cropping/ Monoculture-In this cropping system, only one crop is grown on farmland during the year. 

2. Multiple-Cropping: In this cropping system,  grow two or more crops in a year calendar with intensive input management practices. Example intercropping and mixed cropping. 

3. Inter-cropping: In this cropping system, grow two or more crops in one calendar year.

Agri Climatic Condition for different Crops

Agri Climatic Condition for different Crops
Agri Climate 

Paddy


Favorable Temperature: 22 -32 degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 1500-3000 mm

Best in Soil: Deep clayey and loamy soil

Wheat


Favorable Temperature: 10 -15   (Sowing time) and 21-26  degree Celsius at (Ripening & Harvesting)

Average Rainfall: 750-1000 mm

Soil: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy

Millets


Favorable Temperature: 27-32  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 500-1000 mm

Soil: It can be grown in an inferior alluvial or loamy soil

Grams


Favorable Temperature: 20-25  degree Celsius (Mild cool snd Dry Climate)

Average Rainfall: 400-450 mm

Soil: Loamy Soil

Sugar Cane


Favorable Temperature: 21-27  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 750-1500 mm

Soil: Deep rich loamy soil

Cotton


Favorable Temperature: 21-30  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 500-1000 mm

Best in Soil: Black soil of Deccan and also in alluvial soils, red and laterite soil.

Oilseeds


Favorable Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 500-750 mm

Best in Soil: Well-drained in light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils.

Tea


Favorable Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 1500-3000 mm

Best in Soil: Well-drained, deep friable loamy soil.

Coffee


Favorable Temperature: 15-28  degree Celsius

Average Rainfall: 1500-2500 mm

Best in  Soil: Well-drained deep and loamy soil.



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