Tuesday 25 February 2020

Scientific Cultivation of Tulsi(Ocimum Sanctum L.)

TULSI (Ocimum Sanctum L.) Cultivation 

Tulsi Cultivation

Tulsi is native to India, where it attaches with religious attachment and loved to be grown in shrines and homes as an aromatic perennial shrub. Tulsi is part of Indian worship and has a background as the plants with antiviral property and it purifies the air. Tusli grown as temperate climates, tulsi varies from sea level to an altitude of around 2000 m. It generally grows in moist soil all over the globe.

Tulsi is also grown as a potherb and in home gardens. Tulsi is cultivated in urban as well as in semi-urban areas and the fresh herbage is sold at temples and worship. Tulsi source is from wild habitat includes uncultivated field and roadside.  However, the commercial production of tulsi is for valuable aroma chemicals is extracted from the essential oil. Tulsi leaves contain a bright yellow volatile oil which is useful as a medicine against insects and bacteria. The oil has anti-bacterial properties and acts as an insecticide. Tulsi inhibits the in vitro growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The tulsi seeds are also important used or mixed with juice or cow’s milk, are antioxidant, nourishing, mucilaginous and demulcent. It is used for treating low energy, ulcers, vomiting, and diarrhea or as an overall tonic. The herb is beneficial for improving resistance to stress and has a normalizing influence on blood pressure and blood sugar imbalances. Tulsi is also used against environmental toxins and medicine for including cancer treatment.

Types of Tulsi

It is of two types

Green type (Sri Tulsi)
Purple type (Krishna Tulsi)

Soil and climate for Tulsi:

Tulsi is sufficiently hard and it can be grown in all types of soil except with highly saline, alkaline or waterlogged conditions. Sandy loam soil with good organic matter is considered ideal for tulsi. The crop has wide climate adaptability and can be grown in tropical as well as sub-tropical climates. The long day with high temperature is recorded as a favorable for tulsi plant growth and oil production.

Propagation of Tulsi

Tulsi is propagated through seeds and sown in the nursery beds. The seed requirement for tulsi is 300g/ha. The nursery should be located partially in shade and have an adequate irrigation system. The depth of soil working is 30cm. Farmyard manure is applied to the soil which is well-rotted and fine tilth, seedbeds are prepared at 4.5x1.0x0.2 m distance. Seeds are mixed with soil in the ratio of 1:4 sown in a nursery bed in advance of 2 months' onset of monsoon. It will germinate in 8-12 days and ready for transplant in 50-60 days with 4-5 leaves.

Vegetative propagation for Tulsi:

It can also be propagated through the vegetative method by using terminal cuttings and a chance of success is more around 90-100 percent during the month of October-December. By cuttings with 8-10 nodes and 10-15 cm length are mainly used first 2-3 pairs of leaves are prepared and the rest are trimmed off. After that, they planted in the well-prepared nursery beds or in polythene bags. About 40-50 days cover and rooting is completed then it is ready to transplant in the main field. The plants are ready transplanting with the row to row space 40cm.

Manures and fertilizers for Tulsi:

Tulsi requires FYM 15-20t/ha applied as Basel dose at the time of land preparation.  Application of 120:60:60 kg/ha of NPK is recommended in terms of fertilizer.

Irrigation in Tulsi:

Twice a week till up to one month after that once in a week and also depend on climate, region, soil moisture, and rainfall status.

Interculture operation for Tulsi

The first weeding is done in tulsi is one month after planting and the second after 30 days. After that, No further weeding is required as the plants. Next weeding is done after each harvest to avoid weed growth in the interspaces.

Plant protection in Tulsi

In tulsi, there is no serious pest and disease except minor pests like leaf roller and it can be controlled by spraying malathion 0.2% or methyl parathion 0.1% if noticed
Diseases like powdery mildew are noticed spraying with 0.3% wettable sulfur.

Harvesting and yield of Tulsi

After 90 days of planting and subsequently, the first harvest is done. Tulsi may be harvested at every 75 days interval. Tulsi is harvested at full bloom stage by cutting the plants at 15 cm from ground level. Tulsi yield and oil content are higher in plants harvested during bring sunny days.

Bonus Tip

Do not spray chemical pesticides in medicinal plants like Tulsi. You can use Organic practices include neem-based formulations, fish oil, extracts of garlic, Lantana camera,  spray periodically for controlling the pests.

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