Monday 24 February 2020

Okra Cultivation

Okra Cultivation
By reading this article you will be aware of cultivation practices of okra, Bhindi, ladyfinger.

The scientific name of Okra or Bhendi is Abelmoschus esculentus. The varnicular names are Ladies Finger in English, Bhindi in Hindi, Dhenras in Bengali, Vendai in Tamil, bhindi in Gujarati, Bendekayi in Kannada, Ventaykka in Malayalam, Asra-pattraka in Sanskrit.

It is predominantly a vegetable crop. This vegetable is cultivated for its young fruits, mostly used in curry and soups after cooking. It is rich in vitamins A and B, protein and minerals and also a source of iodine and used as the treatment of goiter.

The major okra producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Odisha, Assam, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka in India.

Favorable Climate for Okra

Okra requires long warm day climate for its growing period and require warm humid condition for high yield. Okra needs temperature between 24-27°C. It also grows in the rainy season, even in the heavy rainfall area. Okra is highly susceptible to frost injury. Seeds fail to germinate under 20 degree C temperature.

Soil Requirement for Okra

Okra can be grown in a wide range of soils where best in loose, friable, well-drained sandy loam soils rich in organic matter and also good yield in heavy soils with good drainage. The best pH of soil for okra is  6.0-6.8. Okra does not grow well in Alkaline, saline soils and the soils with poor drainage.

Season/ Sowing Time for Okra

The sowing time of okra depends on seed sowing varies basically depending upon climate, varieties and their temperature requirement for growth. Normally the okra is sown in Feb-March and June- August. The exact month of sowing depends on the region, but normally for high production of yield and growth, the time is June and July.

Varieties of Okra 

Pusa Makhmali, Pusa Paushja, Pusa A-4, Pusa Sawani, Sel 2-2, ASel-10 (A. Anamika), Sel-4 (A. Abhay), P-7, Punjab Padmini, Punjab no. 13, Punjab 8, DVR 1, 2, 3, 4, VRO 3, 4, 6, 5, 22, 25, Parbhani Kranti, Kiran, Salkeerthi, Co 1, Aruna, MDU 1, Varsha Uphar, Azad Kranthi
Hybrid Varieties of okra CO 2, 3, COBhH 1

To know the details, click here
Improved Variety of Okra

Seed rate and seed treatment for Okra

Okra generally requires about 3.5-5.5 kg/ha for summer seasons and 8-10 kg/ha for rainy season crop. The seed rate generally varies with variety, germination percentage, spacing and season of sowing. Seed Treatment can be done before sowing the seeds, seeds were soaked in a solution of Bavistin (0.2%) for 6 hours and then dried in shade.

Land preparation for Okra

Before the Sowing of okra land should be well prepared with 2-3 ploughing. FYM 25 t/ha is incorporated at the time of land preparation which is well decomposed. Okra is sown on ridges or on flat soil wherein heavy soil sowing should be done on ridges. You can also apply organic manure like neem cake and poultry manures improves the plant growth and the yield. When you will apply organic manure like neem cake and poultry manures it is possible to reduce the used fertilizer.

Sowing of Okra

Okra hybrid varieties need or planted at a spacing of 75 x 30 cm or 60 x 45 cm. Apply A pre-soaking irrigation 3-4 days before sowing. The seeds of okra will germinate in about 4-5 days.

Manure and fertilizers For Okra

The fertilizer application and dose depend upon the soil type and its fertility. Also, the amount of organic manure is applied to the crop. About 20-25 t/ha of FYM is mixed at the time of land preparation or 10-15 days before sowing. Generally, okra needs 100 kg Nitrogen, 60 kg Phosphorus and 50 kg Potassium is recommended for optimum yield. Half dose of N and a full dose of Phosphorus and potassium are applied at the time of planting. The remaining half of N is provided 30-35 days after sowing followed by earthing up operation.

For hybrid okra varieties, the recommended dose is 150 kg Nitrogen, 112 kg Phosphorus and 75 Kg potassium per ha in which 30 % of N and 50 % of P & K is applied as a basal dose. Remaining fertilizer 50 % of P and 40 % of N and 25 % of K is applied as the first top dressing 30-35 days after sowing. Remaining 30 % N and 25 % K is applied as second top dressing about 60 days after sowing.

Irrigation in Okra

Irrigation frequency in okra crop varies with the season, region and soil type. Okra is grown without irrigation in the rainy season. Light irrigation is recommended/required immediately after seed sowing to ensure good germination. The crop is irrigated at the weekly interval in summer. Moisture stress in okra at the fruit setting stage reduces the fruit quality and the quantity. Normally the crop is irrigated by the furrow irrigation method.

Intercultural Operations in Okra

Weed control in Okra

farmers want to keep the crop weed-free so in the first wedding in 20-25 days of plant growth. Okra requires 3 to 4 weedings so weeding should be done at after every 20-25 days. In okra pre-emergence application can be of Basalin 48 EC @ 1.5kg a.i./ha or Stomp 30 EC @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha. For better effective control of weeding one hand weeding at 20-25 days after sowing should be done.

Plant protection for Okra

Pests in Okra - Shoot and Fruit Borer, Leaf Hopper, Okra Stemfly Mites, Whitefly are major pests.
Diseases in Okra: Damping-off, Fusarium wilt, Powdery mildew, Leaf Spot, YVMV and Leaf Curl are the major diseases in okra vegetable.

Yield ok Okra

The yield of the Okra varies greatly depending upon variety and season of cultivation. On average bhindi yields 80-100 Q/ha while the yield of hybrid varieties ranges from 150-220 q/ha.
To know the details, click here.

Please comment down any query and information related to agriculture

Related Posts
Improved variety of Okra
Leaf Curl disease
Agriculture Work for this month
Weather Impact On Crops

Thanks for reading

1 comment:

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